Projet Accompagnement Solidarité Colombie

Justicia y Paz : Choco

Chocó's communities

Please note that the PASC is no longer accompanying Choco's communities.

The PASC  was founded in 2003 to accompany the communities in the Choco. In its first years, the accompaniment trips were completely spent in the Bajo Atrato humanitarian zones of the Jiguamiendo and the Curvarado basins.  The first PASC campaign against  agro-fuels is directly linked to its communities’ history


After about fifteen years of struggle, the communities in resistance located in the Jiguamiando and the Curvarado basins have obtained a judgment from the constitutional court ordering the restitution of their land, illegally occupied by megaplantations of African Palm.  Since their first displacement in 1997 and the recognition of their collective property title in 2001, the communities of the Jiguamiando and Curvarado organized themselves into Humanitarian Zones and Biodiversity Zones and benefitted from both national and international accompaniment.

The communities’ lawyers have succeeded in documenting the links between these « development » projects, financed by the Colombian Government and International Aid Programs, and the paramilitary structures still in place.  The topic of African Palm in the Choco has become, after years of struggle, a national issue about the restitution of land to farming communities, whose resiedents have been the victims of paramilitary crimes.  The government of President Santos, in an effort to distinguish itself from its predecessor (Uribe), maintains a discourse in favor of land restitution, but government actions speak the contrary.  Despite the court order, the Palm plantations remain intact.

On the ground, the discrepancy between government discourse and action is lived out every day by communities as land invasion, death threats, and criminalization.

Criminalization :

African Palm owners have framed prominent leaders of the minor Councils who live in the Humanitarian and Biodiversity Zones of the Curvarado and Jiguimiando as being members of the FARC-EP.   This legal strategy, on the one hand, prevents the representatives from the communities from testifying against the Palm owners in court and, on the other hand, puts into doubt the leaders' right to the land.

Paramilitary presence :

Since mid-April 2011, there has been a resurgence of paramilitary troops armed with AK-47s in these communities.  Prior to this, since the so-called demobilization process of 2005, paramilitaries had maintained a more discreet presence, sporting civilian clothes, guns and radios. 

Recolonization of the territory:

Since mid-December 2010, more than 200 hectares of the collective Curvarado territory are illegally occupied by invaders  and protected by paramilitaries.  These invaders are, generally speakig, farmers from other regions who are not involved in resistance processes and who are ready to accept « development » projects.  The goal of their installation on the territory is to « return »  the land to the communities that are open to negotiating with the industry.  It is thought that representatives for the Banana companies are behind this renewed land occupation.  While an eviction notice has been issued to the illegal occupants, no action has been taken because the Uraba regional police department claims it does not have enough employees to carry out the eviction.

History of a forced displacement:

In 1997, under the pretext of FARC-EP guerrilla presence in the region, the department of Chocó underwent a series of military operations named ‘Operation Genesis’ under the command of General Rito Alejo del Rio Rojas of the 17th Brigade of the National Army. Simultaneously, while Army helicopters bombarded the region, paramilitary groups identified as AUC (United Self-defence of Colombia) invaded civilian villages. They ordered the people to leave their territory and committed massacres while they burned down houses and crops. Communities of the Jiguimiandó, Curvaradó and Cacarica river basins were among the hundreds of communities who were thus forced to flee their villages immediately with hardly the clothes on their backs. Today, almost 10 years later, the perpetrators of the crimes committed at the time of ‘Operation Genesis’ remain in complete impunity.

History of a struggle for Life and Land

Since their displacement, the communities were forced to live on the periphery of villages in inhumane conditions, crowded into temporary housing, dependent on frequently insufficient food aid. Unaware of eachother's existence, the Afro-Colombian and mestizo communities of Jiguamiandó and Cacarica progressively began to organize a return to their respective lands.

By the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000, in different stages, the communities were finally able to return to their ancestral lands. The communities of Jiguamiandó as well as Cacarica asserted themselves as populations engaging in civil resistance, reclaiming their rights to Life, Land, Self-determination, Freedom, Justice and Dignity. They developed mechanisms of protection enabling them to continue civil resistance amidst the armed conflict: the ´Humanitarian Zones´ were created, two situated in Cacarica and three in Jiguiamandó. Parts of the communities of Curvaradó, living in Jiguamiandó, have since created two new Humanitarian Zones on their territory (April and October 2006). The ‘Humanitarian Zones’ are physically delimited spaces where many communities have regrouped to live together. They serve to distinguish a civilian population living within an armed conflict, not to be confused with armed actors. They are opposed to the vicious exploitation of natural resources on their land and to the blood-stained development model imposed from above. The communities of Jiguamiandó, as those of Cacarica, seek to continue living freely on their land, practicing traditional subsistence agriculture.

In the case of the communities in the Community Council of the Jiguamiandó River Basin and the 9 communities of Curvaradó, situated in the department of Chocó, there are currently 1500 hectares of African Palm sown illegally by the Urapalma Company on the communities´ collective territory to which they hold the legal collective title, under law 70 of 1993 which protects ancestral territory of Afro-Colombian communities. In the case of the CAVIDA communities in Cacarica, department of Chocó, the Maderas del Darien Corporation has been for many years illegally cutting immense quantities of high quality lumber on the collective territory of the communities.




I 81 Paramilitary assault against community leaders of the regions of Caño Manso and Curvaradó

19 September 2007

Cano Manso leaders received gunshot wounds during an operation in Belén de Bajirá


Afro-Colombian communities of the Curvarado and Jiguamiando underwent a forced displacement in 1997during a joint operation by the national army and paramilitary forces. The return of the communities to their land, now covered in African Palm tree plantations, is currently taking place under the menace of the paramilitary and the inaction of government authorities.

Summary of recent events:

Violence continues against afro-colombian communities

21 August 2007

On June 21st, Luis Alberto, who I know better as ‘Janio’, was walking back to his home in the Humanitarian Zone of El Tesoro when he was assaulted by five illegally armed paramilitaries, who tied him up for half an hour, kicking him and threatening to kill him, accusing him and other community members of being guerrillas. Now, two weeks later I wonder if Janio is, like me, still recovering from the shock of the event.

I 82 - National Army Brigade 17 supports illegality

2 May 2007



National Army Brigade 17 supports illegality

Intimidation of the community leader EUSTAQUIO POLO, corporate infiltration inside the Incoder, preparation of the forest cutting in Jiguamiando, negative effects of palm pesticides on the health of women, repopulation in Andalucia and El Guamo.


31 March 2007

While they protect palm extraction, the “demobilized” ‘AGUILAS NEGRAS’ THREATEN ENRIQUE PETRO AND HIS FAMILY WITH MURDER


Since April 2006, the Humanitarian Zone of Caño Claro in Curvaradó, Chocó, has been situated on the land of Enrique Petro, member of the Community Council of Curvaradó, in the midst of African Palm plantations.

Palm derived agrofuels are not ecologically y sustainable

11 March 2007

While current public policies in Columbia encourage palm tree plantations, thereby destroying the Pacific and the Bajo Atrato biodiversity, scientifics and ecologist movements around the world are questioning the positive effects of palm oil and its use as a biocombustible.

10 Years after Operation Genesis: Ecological walk

14 February 2007

from ashes to hope, from death to life.

15th – 23rd February, 2007

10 years of destruction
10 years working towards dignity
10 years pursuing the dignity of the self and the future of humanity


Asociación de familiares de las Víctimas de Riosucio CLAMORES

Asociación de cabildos Cuna, Embara, Katio, ACIKEK

Resguardo Indígena Jooin Pubuur - Cacarica

Familias de los Consejos Comunitarios del Cacarica de Autodeterminación, Vida, Dignidad del Cacarica-CAVIDA-.


13 February 2007

Curvaradó – Jiguamiandó

Renewal of sowing and extraction of African Palm

“We will enter El Tesoro (HZ) and El Limón (BZ) where there are many people reclaiming their land” said an ex-paramilitary.


Threats of paramilitary incursions into the Humanitarian Zones and Biodiversity Zones of Curvaradó and Jiguamiandó have come true through new military tactics of population control via business channels.

I 75 - Possible Paramilitary Intrigues, FAMILY OF ENRIQUE PETRO IN DANGER

22 September 2006

Ground report 75

Recalling that since the 8th of April 2006 the families of Curvarado, accompanied by Jusictia y Paz and PASC have been building a new Humanitarian Zone on land owned by Don Enrique Petro, member of the collective territory of Curvarado. A land which had been illegally sown with palm since the forced displacement. Recalling also that this fact is no longer in legal dispute, the Columbian government having recognized (in response to an urgent action) that this land legally and legitimately belongs to Enrique Petro.

I 71 - Intimidation, threats against the people of the Humanitarian Zones and from the Reservation Zone

28 June 2006

The warnings, intimidations, and pressure of the XVII Brigade military units and police agents, the business owners and armed civilians against the inhabitants of the Humanitarian Zone of Curvarado were frequent since mid-April when farmers returned to Curvarado after 10 years of forced displacement. The same tactics were carried out against those who initiated the first Reserve Zone in the village of Cetino, where African palm has been planted illegally by palm companies since 2001.